New types of weapons, the damaging factors of which are based on processes and phenomena that were not previously used for military purposes. At the beginning of the 21st century, the following are in various stages of development and testing: directed energy weapons (laser, accelerator, microwave, infrasonic); electromagnetic weapons (microwave, laser varieties); non-lethal weapons, the so-called. not lethal; geophysical weapons (seismic, climatic, ozone, ecological); radiological, etc. A special place is occupied by a weapon with a destructive effect on the genetic apparatus of people – a genetic weapon.
Directed energy weapon, a type of weapon whose destructive effect is based on radiated energy concentrated in a narrow beam. To O.N.E. include: beam weapons that use thermomechanical action as the main damaging factor to destroy manpower, equipment, destroy objects and engineering structures; microwave weapons – radio frequency electromagnetic radiation to disable electronic means; infrasonic weapons – infrasonic vibrations to defeat manpower. All types of O.N.E. practically inertialess and, with the exception of infrasonic weapons, instant action. The transfer of energy in them occurs at the speed of light or approaches it.
A positive property of O.e. is its secrecy, surprise, the ability to instantly disable electronic systems, which leads to disorganization of control. However, for the effective action of O.e. high-energy sources of radiation and high-speed systems for detecting, identifying, capturing a target and pointing weapons at it are needed. The main efforts of the ONE developers are concentrated in this direction. The greatest successes have been achieved in the improvement of laser weapons.
Weapons of non-lethal action
Non-lethal weapons (non-lethal weapons), types of weapons capable of incapacitating weapons, military equipment and materiel, as well as enemy personnel without inflicting irretrievable losses on him. He’s D. It is subdivided: into weapons that act only on manpower, on weapons, military equipment and materiel, as well as combined, acting on manpower and weapons, military equipment and materiel at the same time. It can also be used against the population.
K O.n.d. in terms of manpower, they are treated as conventional types of weapons that are widely used at the present time – police gases, cartridges with rubber and other non-lethal bullets, as well as newly developed psychotropic devices, infrasonic weapons, etc. For action only on weapons, military equipment and electromagnetic weapons, means of electronic suppression, influence on electronic means, etc., as well as biological and chemical means that decompose oil products, rocket fuel, conductor insulation, rubber products, etc. can be used.
Both manpower and military equipment include small and medium-sized nuclear weapons for blinding manpower and disabling optical-electronic equipment, microwave weapons for disabling radio-electronic and optical elements of weapons and military equipment, etc.
Despite the complexity of the development and production of some of this type of weapon, experts consider it quite promising. He’s D. in most cases, it has stealth and surprise of use, the ability to paralyze the command and control system, disable personnel and equipment.
A set of various means of intentional impact on the environment to use the forces of nature for military purposes. With the help of various types of G.o. it is possible to influence the physical processes occurring in the solid, liquid or gaseous shells of the Earth and its atmosphere.
So seismic weapons (lithospheric) use the energy of the earth’s crust (lithosphere), breaking tectonic layers at the nodes of instability. Ground, underwater, or land-based nuclear explosions provoke a shift in layers and a shift in the earth’s crust, which causes earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, land flooding, and other catastrophic consequences.
With the help of climatic (meteorological) weapons, it is possible to change the weather or climate in certain regions of the Earth, create large-scale droughts, floods from heavy precipitation, hail, storm storms, etc. The destruction of watershed mountain ranges, the blocking of some straits and changes in sea currents can lead to global climate change.
Ozone weapons are capable of creating “windows” in the Earth’s ozone layer, which causes damage to all life from ultraviolet radiation from space in certain geographical areas. Environmental weapons (biospheric) affect the enemy’s habitat and are capable of injuring or destroying forests, crops, polluting water, air, soil, etc. As E.o. chemical and biological means, as well as various types of incendiary, biological, chemical and other weapons can be used.
A type of weapon capable of damaging the genetic (hereditary) apparatus of people. It is assumed that the current beginning of G.o. there may be some viruses that have mutagenic activity (the ability to cause hereditary changes) and invade the chromosome of a cell containing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), as well as chemical mutants obtained from natural sources by chemical synthesis or biotechnological methods. The main result of the G.o. are damage and changes in the primary structure of DNA, which can lead to serious diseases and their hereditary transmission.
Depending on the strength of the damaging factors and the performance of combat missions, the listed types of O. on n.f.p. can be used as conventional weapons or weapons of mass destruction. In view of the unpredictability of the consequences of the use of certain types of these weapons, especially the destructive impact on the environment, the world community is trying to prevent its testing or use, as evidenced by the 1977 Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Use of Means of Influencing the Natural Environment.